By Baugh, Albert Croll; Cable, Thomas
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Additional info for A history of the English language
In like manner where one wrote pugna (fight), urbs (city), os (mouth), the popular, spoken word was battualia (Fr. bataille), villa (Fr. ville), bucca (Fr. bouche). So verberare=battuere (Fr. battre), osculari=basiare (Fr. baiser), ignis=focus (Fr. feu), ludus=jocus (Fr. jeu). It was naturally the Vulgar Latin of the marketplace and camp that was carried into the different Roman provinces. That this Vulgar Latin developed differently in the different parts of Europe in which it was introduced is explained by a number of factors.
So verberare=battuere (Fr. battre), osculari=basiare (Fr. baiser), ignis=focus (Fr. feu), ludus=jocus (Fr. jeu). It was naturally the Vulgar Latin of the marketplace and camp that was carried into the different Roman provinces. That this Vulgar Latin developed differently in the different parts of Europe in which it was introduced is explained by a number of factors. 5 These differences would be increased by separation and the influence of the languages spoken by the native populations as they adopted the new language.
The Home of the Indo-Europeans. It is obvious that if the languages just described represent the progressive differentiation of an original speech, this speech, which we may for convenience call the Indo-European language, must have been spoken by a population somewhere at some time. What can be learned of these people and their early location? Concerning their physical character, practically nothing can be discerned. Continuity in language and culture does not imply biological descent. It is not an uncommon phenomenon in history for a people to give up their own language and adopt another.
A history of the English language by Baugh, Albert Croll; Cable, Thomas