By T. Fliessbach

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At full inspiration (TLC), all lung regions are expanded nearly uniformly, despite the vertical gradient in pleural pressure (Fig. 3-2c). This is because, near full inflation the slope of the static volume-pressure curve of the lung is nearly flat, with the result that the pleural pressure differences down the lung do not cause appreciable regional differences in expansion. As lung volume decreases below TLC, the lung regions operate on a progressively steeper part of their static volume-pressure curve, s o that the vertical gradient in pleural pressure causes marked differences in expansion down the lung.

Downstream of this point, pleural pressure will exceed airway pressure and airway closure may occur. The closure occurs first in the most dependent parts of the lung, where the pleural pressure is highest and the alveoli least distended. Closure commences at about 46 percent of total lung capacity, and as residual volume i s approached, the zone of closure spreads up the lung. Closure occurs when the regional volume is approximately 20 percent of the regional total lung capacity. Under increased acceleration it has been demonstrated that the pleural pressures, in the dependent parts of the lung below the iso-pressure point, become more positive.

2-17 Effect of +3G, acceleration on maximum voluntary inspiratory and expiratory pressures at different lung volumes. The relevant relaxation pressure curves have been redrawn from fig. 2-12. Lung volumes a r e given a t BTPS and are referred to the one G resting end-expiratory level. Developed pressures are given by the horizontal distance between the maximum pressure curve and the corresponding relaxation pressure curve. 35 I cost of acceleration on the work of breathing will be greater than that calculated above.

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Allgemeine Relativitatstheorie by T. Fliessbach


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