By Wolfgang Demtröder

ISBN-10: 3540206310

ISBN-13: 9783540206316

This advent to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our current version of atoms and molecules has been built over the last centuries by way of many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical aspect by means of the creation of quantum physics to the enough description of micro-particles.

It illustrates the wave version of debris by means of many examples and exhibits the bounds of classical description. The interplay of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its strength for spectroscopy is printed in additional aspect and specifically lasers as sleek spectroscopic instruments are mentioned extra thoroughly.

Many examples and issues of options should still result in the reader to an excessive energetic cooperation.

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Extra info for An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics

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If there are NE atoms per elementary cell, we get for the atomic volume Va = fVE /NE . 60) The following three examples illustrate different values of f for some simple lattice structures, assuming the atoms to be described by hard spheres with radius r0 . 29 30 2. The Concept of the Atom → → → 3. Face-centered Cubic Crystal In addition to the atoms at the eight corners of the elementary cell one atom sits at the center of each of the six faces (Fig. 33b). The atoms touch each other along √ the side face diagonal, which has the length a 2 = 4r0 .

Within the time interval ∆t the number of atoms Z hitting the area A of a wall in the yz-plane is Z = n x vx A∆t . 27) −vx → v vy ∆p = 2mv x → v ∆v x = 2 v x , ∆v y = 0 These are just the atoms inside the blue volume in Fig. 15 with length vx ∆t and cross section A. Each atom transfers the momentum 2mvx . Therefore the force acting on the surface element A is F = 2Zmvx /∆t = 2n x mv2x A and the pressure p acting on the wall is p = 2mn x v2x . Fig. 14. 28) If an atom moves with the velocity v = {vx , v y , vz } at an arbitrary angle against the wall, the momentum transfer to the wall is only caused by its component vx , because the tangential components parallel to the wall do not transfer any momentum (Fig.

40b different types of cathodes are shown. b) Field Emission a) Anode I Ub Is − + Ua Ua I b) Tungsten-barium mixture α) β) − + γ) Fig. 40a,b. Thermal electron emission devices. (a) Arrangement for measuring the emission current and its saturation value. (b) Technical realization of different thermal emission cathodes. (α) Hair-needle cathode, (β) cathode hollow cylinder heated by a current through a tungsten helix inside the cylinder. (γ ) Focusing cathode, heated by electron bombardment on the backside When a voltage U is applied between an anode and a cathode formed as a sharp tip with radius r on a tungsten wire, the electric field (E) = U/r may become as large as 1011 V/m (see Sect.

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An Introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics by Wolfgang Demtröder

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