By Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

ISBN-10: 019915273X

ISBN-13: 9780199152735

Fresh, up to date chemistry textual content for the recent AQA AS Chemistry specification beginning in 2008. Emphasises How technology Works and is deal to follow-on from GCSE as a hugely obtainable textual content for complex research.

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Additional info for AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book

Sample text

You will recall that a covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. Usually, the two atoms involved in a covalent bond each contribute one electron. Something different happens in a co-ordinate bond, also called a dative covalent bond. Into a vacant orbital In a co-ordinate bond, one of the two atoms contributes both of the shared electrons. The other atom does not contribute any electrons to the bond. Once formed, a co-ordinate bond behaves just the same as other covalent bonds. For a co-ordinate bond to form, there must be • a lone pair of electrons on one of the atoms and • a vacant orbital on the other atom.

In general, ionic bonds occur when a metal and a non-metal react to form a compound. already from GCSE, you know Towards a stable electron configuration • a n ionic compound is a giant structure of ions Metal atoms lose electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration. Non-metal atoms may gain electrons to do this. The stable electron configuration is often that of a noble gas. For example: • A sodium1atom2loses one electron to form a sodium ion: Na → Na 1 e . The electron configuration of the sodium ion is 1s2 2s2 2p6.

Elimination reactions involve removing a group of atoms from a molecule. • Condensation reactions involve two molecules joining together to make a larger molecule and a smaller one. Using the Haber Process for manufacturing ammonia as your example, explain why a process with a low percentage yield might be chosen. Compare the two processes used to manufacture epoxyethane. To what extent is the percentage yield an unreliable indicator of the efficiency of these processes? Explain how the use of catalysts in industrial processes can help to achieve sustainable development.

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AS Chemistry for AQA: Student Book by Nigel Saunders, Angela Saunders, Sandra Clinton, Max Parsonage, Emma Poole

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