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Kempf, and R. Srama, A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus, Nature 474:620-622, 2011. 12. R. M. Calvin, Condensed O2 on Europa and Callisto, The Astronomical Journal 124:3400-3403, 2002. 13. P. F. C. W. H. Nealson, Astrobiology and the potential for life on Europa, in Europa (R. Pappalardo, W. McKinnon, and K. , 2009. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 24 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies 4 A Geophysical Perspective and Inventory of Habitable Environments on Icy Bodies The geophysical context of solar system objects constrains the potential propagation of terrestrial organisms with known minimal nutritional requirements and environmental tolerances outlined in Chapter 3.

Terminal bioloadreduction or mission cancellation. The phrase, “does current data indicate,” conveys a scientific consensus about the reliability of available information at the time of assessing planetary protection risk. PREPUBLICATION COPY—SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL CORRECTION 19 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar System Bodies REFERENCES 1. , 2000. 2. , 2000, p. 29. 3. R. Pace, A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere.

Thus, an icy body with a surface age exceeding 108 years provides sufficient confidence that the geologic timescale for delivery of surface materials into potentially habitable subsurface environments vastly exceeds the timescale of biological exploration. To narrow the field of icy bodies of possible concern, it is assumed that the bodies that have surfaces in which the youngest craters are endogenically resurfaced terrains older than 108 years pose no concerns for planetary protection. Icy bodies that exhibit resurfaced areas younger than 108 years require greater scrutiny.

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Assessment of Planetary Prot. Rqmts. for Spacecraft Missions to Icy Solar Syst. Bodies - NRC


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